Anchor Institutions

2016

How 3 CEOs Are Embracing Their Institutions' Roles as Anchors in the Community

Matt O'Connor

As integral parts of the community, health systems are in a powerful position to further social change.

Hospitals & Philanthropy

Doug Easterling , Allen Smart and Laura McDuffee

How Hospitals Can Help Heal Communities

Ted Howard and Tyler Norris
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco

In this article for the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco's blog, Democracy Collaborative President Ted Howard and Kaiser Permanente Vice President for Total Health Partnerships Tyler Norris discuss the immense potential of hospitals to build wealth in their surrounding communities. In the article, Howard and Norris delve into issues addressed in their co-authored report, Can Hospitals Heal America's Communities?. The Build Health Places Network also featured the article on their blog.

2015

Intermediaries in Integrated Approaches to Health and Economic Mobility

Prabhjot Singh and Stuart M. Butler

For individuals to achieve upward economic mobility they must live in a supportive neighborhood with, among other things, high quality primary care and good public schools. But even when the key ingredients of success are present, households often find it hard to navigate services. A variety of intermediaries help address that problem.

Some are “embedded” in such organizations as hospitals or schools and help clients to obtain a range of supplementary services. Examples include Health Leads, City Health Works, and Grand Aids, along with local community health workers and school nurse programs.

Others are the result of hospital-led population health systems. Examples include the Parkland Health system in Texas, the Montefiore and the Mount Sinai health systems in New York, and Washington Adventist Hospital in Maryland.

Others still are organizations linking together institutions focused on the same goal by providing data sharing services, financing, or organizational support. Examples include community development financial institutions, but also integrated service systems, such as the Harlem Children’s Zone that organizes wraparound services for the families of its school students.

While intermediaries help households and can add value, they also face challenges in their operations. Often they are underfunded because budgets do not reflect their broad community value. Many regulatory and technical barriers impede information sharing with intermediaries, which is necessary to credibly show improved outcomes. There can also be a clash of culture between intermediaries and other organizations.

Policymakers in both the public and private sectors need to address these challenges so that intermediary institutions can demonstrate their value and fulfill their crucial role. 

Can the Real Sharing Economy Please Stand Up?

Nina Feldman
Next City

In the wake of the BP oil spill, co-op businesses are on the rise in New Orleans

Hospitals adopt anchor institution economic development strategies

Betsy Taylor
Catholic Health World

David Zuckerman, the Democracy Collaborative's Healthcare Engagement Manager, speaks with Catholic Health World about how and why hospitals and health systems are devising anchor institution strategies to strengthen local economies. 

2014

The Rise of the Anchor Institution: Setting Standards for Success

Aaron Bartley
Huffington Post

 Aaron Bartley, co-founder of People United for Sustainable Housing (PUSH Buffalo), describes the growing use of anchor-based economic development strategies and recommends the Collaborative’sAnchor Dashboard as a tool for universities to measure their community impact.

Effective Governance of a University as an Anchor Institution

Ira Harkavy, Matthew Hartley, Rita A. Hodges, Anthony Sorrentino and Joann Weeks
Raabe Academic Publishers

This case study, authored by Ira Harkavy and his colleagues at Penn, describes how the role of the University of Pennsylvania as an anchor institution has evolved from 1981 to present. The paper describes community engagement efforts like the Netter Center for Community Partnerships, which works to leverage research, teaching, and learning to support West Philadelphia; and the University City District, an economic partnership between small businesses, anchor institutions. While Penn’s cultural reshaping remains, in the words of its authors, a “work in progress,” the authors are optimistic that “Penn will further evolve as an anchor institution and increasingly realize [Ben] Franklin’s democratic civic vision.”

Committing to Their Roots: Interview with Ted Howard

Mary Helen Petrus
Forefront: New Ideas on Economic Policy from the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

Forefront interviews Ted Howard, who describes how large, so-called anchor institutions can make a difference in the high-unemployment, high-poverty neighborhoods in which they operate. But he also says they should be ready for unintended consequences as they do.

2013

Universities as Anchor Institutions

Eugenie Birch, David C. Perry and Henry Louis Taylor, Jr.
Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement

2012

2011

2010

Ripple: The Potential Power of Purposeful Purchasing

David LePage

Like a stone thrown into a pond, every purchase creates a ripple. Unintentionally or intentionally, every decision to purchase causes not one, but multiple transactions affecting the community’s capital, whether social, environmental, cultural, structural, human, or economic. 

2009

2008

2007

New Approaches Are Needed to Curb Poverty

Gar Alperovitz, Steve Dubb and Ted Howard
The Chronicle of Philanthropy, volume 20, number 3

The University and Urban Revival: Out of the Ivory Tower and Into the Streets

Judith Rodin

New book by former University of Pennsylvania President Judith Rodin examines Penn's community partnership efforts.

2006

Food and Food Purchasing: A Role for Health Care

Health Care Without Harm
Going Green: A Resource Kit for Pollution Prevention in Health Care, Section 8-1

2005

Campuses Purchasing Green

Second Nature and Education For Sustainability-Western Network

2004

Community Foundations: What Do They Offer Community Development?

Jeffrey S. Lowe

This article provides case studies of the role of three community foundations in facilitating the establishment of community development collaboratives to galvanize support for local community development corporations (CDCs): the Cleveland Foundation, the Dade Community Foundation, and the Greater New Orleans Foundation. Sentiments about community foundation support or influence upon CDC activity captured from person-to-person interviews with CDC staff and community foundation personnel and board members are included, in addition to secondary data documenting the character and activity of community foundation assistance. The article offers lessons drawn from the three cases. Although it makes no broad generalizations, the article concludes with some recommendations for community foundations interested in community development collaboratives as a means of supporting local CDCs and identifies some areas for future research. 

2003

The Meds and Eds in Urban Economic Development

Carolyn N. Adams
Journal of Urban Affairs, volume 25, number 5, pages 571–588

2000

Community-University Partnerships for Affordable Housing

W. Wiewel, F. Gaffikin and M. Morrissey
Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, volume 5, issue 1, pages 27-46

n/a

Key Community Benefit Terms

Across the country, nonprofit hospitals are beginning to comply with a new federal requirement that they partner with community and public health representatives to identify and develop strategies for addressing community health needs. This requirement, found in the Affordable Care Act, builds on the best practices of leading hospitals and hospital systems that already strategically invest resources and build partnerships with community groups and public health leaders to improve community health. This one-page provides definitions for important terms to know.

2014

Economic Analysis Of Detroit’s Food System

Econsult Solutions, Inc. and Urbane Development, LLC

The food economy in Detroit is already the city’s third largest economic sector, and is poised to be the next largest growth sector for the city, note Econsult Solutions, Inc. and Urbane Development in a report written on behalf of The Detroit Food and Fitness Collaborative. In their report, the authors outline several strategies to foster equitable growth, including connecting local, small-scale food producers and manufactures to anchor institution demand. Only by engaging Detroiters and supporting the local, small, and medium sized actors in the system, the report argues, will food sector growth be effective in creating jobs and building community wealth for Detroit residents. 

The New Barnraising

Gareth Potts
German Marshall Fund of the United States

This new toolkit from the German Marshall Fund offers policies and practices to empower communities to preserve civic assets such as public parks, libraries, and recreation centers in the face of public and private resource constraints. Based on research conducted in Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, and Baltimore, the guide offers a range of strategies to raise money, awareness, and community involvement for the preservation of community assets.

2013

Journal of Higher Education Outreach & Engagement

Anchor Institution Task Force
Journal of Higher Education Outreach & Engagement

Moderated by the Anchor Institution Task Force, this special issue of the Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement details the successes and challenges of anchor institution–community partnerships and discusses what it takes to create and sustain eective collaborative strategies. Topics covered include: what it means to be an anchor institution, how to build coalitions and collective expertise, engaging the arts, how colleges can support entrepreneurial ecosystems, the role of higher education in Promise Neighborhoods, and the role of service-learning in promoting anchor institution work. Detailed case studies are presented from Syracuse, Widener, Miami Dade College, Tulsa Community College, Lehigh, University of Michigan, and University of Tennessee.

2012

The Road Half Traveled: University Engagement at a Crossroads

Rita Axelroth Hodges and Steve Dubb

Authored by Rita Axelroth Hodges and Steve Dubb as part of Michigan State University Press' series on Transformations in Higher Education, the book features ten in-depth cases and examines how universities, by pursuing an anchor institution mission to improve surrounding communities in cooperation with community partners, can positively impact the welfare of low-income residents.

2009

2005

2003

2001

2016

The Role of Anchor Institutions in Restoring Neighborhoods

Janet Viveiros and Lisa Sturtevant
Anchor institutions, such as hospitals and universities, can be important catalysts for urban economic and community development. They can take on a variety of roles—from community infrastructure builder to purchaser of local goods and services to developer of real estate. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), nonprofit hospitals and other health care institutions have new obligations and opportunities to embrace their role as community anchors by pursuing activities that focus on addressing the comprehensive health needs in their communities. In the years to come, health care institutions can become more actively involved in supporting the development of safe, decent and affordable housing, a key social determinant of health. This brief describes those opportunities and provides specific guidance for how affordable housing and community development organizations can successfully partner with anchor institutions to improve neighborhoods and expand housing opportunities.

The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001-2014

Raj Chetty , Michael Stepner, Sarah Abraham, Shelby Lin, Benjamin Scuderi , Nicholas Turner, Augustin Bergeron and David Cutler

2015

Diversity in Health Care: Examples from the Field

Health Research & Educational Trust

Diversity is becoming a key word in health care. Hospitals and health care systems are focusing on providing care that addresses the diversity of their patient populations. To better care for diverse patient populations, hospitals are working to increase the diversity of their leadership team, board and staff. And many hospital teams are building a culture of diversity and inclusion, to better engage all employees and provide high-quality, equitable care for all patients. 

A Case to End US Hunger Using Collaboration to Improve Population Health

Randy Oostra

Over the last 50 years, every U.S. president has worked, in some fashion, to address healthcare spending while improving the fundamental healthcare conditions for those in need. As healthcare leaders we often think in terms of three- to ve-year plans. But if we think about the next 50 years, it brings into question ‘what’ and ‘how’ the investments we’re making now in our communities — whether new facilities, programs or initiatives — will impact the public by 2064. 

Hospital Community Benefits after the ACA

Cynthia H. Woodcock and Gayle D. Nelson

Leveraging hospital community benefit policy to improve community health

Building a More Inclusive National Park System for All Americans

Nidhi Thakar, Claire Moser and Laura E. Durso

Work remains to build a system of national parks and monuments that tells the stories of all Americans by reflecting the full scope of the nation’s history and meeting the demands of a diverse population. 

Can Income-Related Policies Improve Population Health?

Laudan Aron, Lisa Dubay , Emily Zimmerman, Sarah M. Simon , Derek Chapman and Steven H. Woolf

How Are Income and Wealth Linked to Health and Longevity?

Steven H. Woolf , Laudan Aron , Lisa Dubay , Sarah M. Simon , Emily Zimmerman and Kim X. Luk

2014

2013

Hospital Community Benefits After the ACA: The State Law Landscape

Martha H. Somerville, Gayle D. Nelson and Carl H. Mueller

The Hilltop Institute’s Hospital Community Benefit Program has released a new online resource, the Community Benefit State Law Profiles, and a companion brief, Hospital Community Benefits After the ACA: The State Law Landscape. The Profiles present a comprehensive analysis of each state’s community benefit landscape as defined by its laws, regulations, tax exemptions, and, in some cases, policies and activities of state executive agencies. As state policymakers and community stakeholders assess their state’s community benefit requirements (or the absence of such requirements) in the wake of national health reform, these tools provide a contextual basis for consideration of these policies and those of other states in comparison to federal community benefit benchmarks. 

Anchor Institutions: An Interpretive Review Essay

Henry Louis Taylor, Jr. and Gavin Luter

This paper from the Anchor Institution Task Force (AITF) is a review of existing literature on anchor institutions that seeks to provide insight on the role of anchors in the transformation communities and guide future research. The paper finds that while an understanding of anchor institutions is growing, the field needs to extend the base of knowledge and continue to encourage institutions to have a leading role in the building of democratic communities and local economies.

2012

Democratic Devolution: How America’s Colleges and Universities Can Strengthen Their Communities

Ira Harkavy and Rita Axelroth Hodges

In a policy memo from the Progressive Policy Institute, Ira Harkavy and Rita Axelroth Hodges of the Netter Center for Community Partnerships at the University of Pennsylvania call on government to increase its support fo partnerships between communities and institutions of higher education. Given the immense resources available to colleges and universities, these anchor institutions have the potential to ground civic partnerships working to revitalize local communities. To do so, they must change their organizational structures and make civic engagement a core principle across all levels of the institution.  The federal government, by targeting existing resources, directing financial incentives and mobilizing the bully pulpit, can help catalyze this shift.

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

The Neighborhood Dynamics of Hospitals as Large Land Owners

Raphael W. Bostic, LaVonna B. Lewis and David C. Sloane
presentation at conference on Large Landowners and Their Impact on Land Values

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

n/a

2016

Field Guide: The Future of Health is Local

Business Alliance for Local Living Economies (BALLE)
Business Alliance for Local Living Economies

This field guide, produced by The Business Alliance for Local Living Economies (BALLE) in partnership with Kaiser Permanente, connects the dots between the social determinants of health and the framework of strategies that both BALLE and MIT's Presencing Institute have identified as the path forward in building thriving local economies:

Cleveland’s Greater University Circle Initiative: An Anchor-Based Strategy for Change

Walter Wright, Kathryn W. Hexter and Nick Downer

Cities are increasingly turning to their “anchor” institutions as drivers of economic development, harnessing the power of these major economic players to benefit the neighborhoods where they are rooted. This is especially true for cities that are struggling with widespread poverty and disinvestment. Urban anchors— typically hospitals and universities—have sometimes isolated themselves from the poor and struggling neighborhoods that surround them. But this is changing. Since the late 1990s, as population, jobs, and investment have migrated outward, these “rooted in place” institutions are becoming a key to the long, hard work of revitalization. In Cleveland, the Greater University Circle Initiative is a unique, multi-stakeholder initiative with a ten-year track record. What is the “secret sauce” that keeps this effort together?

2015

Community Wealth Building in Jackson, Mississippi: Strategic Considerations

The Democracy Collaborative

This report, prepared by The Democracy Collaborative and submitted to Cooperation Jackson, highlights opportunities to build a cooperative economy in Jackson, Mississippi linked to anchor institution procurement.

2014

Economic Impact Guidelines

Zoë Ambargis, Charles Ian Mead, Stanislaw J. Rzeznik, David Swenson and Janet Weisenberger

A Roadmap for Anchor Institution Local Food Purchasing in Baltimore

Karin Endy and Karen Karp

Commissioned by the Baltimore Integration Partnership, a collaboration of anchor institutions, nonprofits, and public organizations focused on inclusion in Baltimore, this report from Karp Resources describes how anchors can create opportunities for local food vendors and strengthen the local economy. To help local vendors gain contracts with anchor institutions, which typically work with large food service providers, the report encourages anchors to create local preference requirements within their requests for proposals (RFPs), to support the certification of local- and minority-owned enterprises, and to institute local food price preferences.

Anchor Richmond: Community Opportunities & Anchor Strategies for the Berkeley Global Campus at Richmond Bay

Eli Moore, Nadia Barhoum and Alexis Alvarez Franco

This new report from the Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society identifies opportunities for community wealth building in Richmond, California. The authors claim that with the development of the Berkeley Global Campus, which is poised to become the largest employer in Richmond and the largest public investment in Richmond since World War II, UC Berkeley and the associated Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have a unique opportunity to reduce racial inequality and promote broad prosperity in Richmond. The Haas report provides several recommendations that these anchor institutions can adopt, including the creation of a working group to develop and monitor strategies for community wealth building and the creation of a fund to launch minority-owned businesses.

Improving Community Health through Hospital – Public Health Collaboration: Insights and Lessons Learned from Successful Partnerships

Lawrence Prybil et al.

A new IRS requirement that tax-exempt hospitals conduct community health needs assessments encourages hospitals to work collaboratively with a wide range of stakeholders. The authors of a recent report, published by the Commonwealth Center for Governance Studies, Inc., argue that this federal mandate presents an opportunity to improve community health and reduce health care expenditures. The report offers several case studies of effective and sustainable partnerships in California, Minnesota, Maryland, Florida, and elsewhere throughout the country. 

Underwriting Good Jobs

Robert Hiltonsmith and Lew Daly
Demos

The third report in a Dēmos research series examining how the federal contracting system has contributed to income inequality illustrates the potential for federal purchasing to instead promote upward mobility. The authors show that by setting higher workforce standards, which require federal contractors to provide living wages, paid sick leave, and the right to collective bargaining, the United States can grow its middle class, increase community wealth, and generate employment. Indeed, the authors estimate that such measures could foster the creation of an additional 260,000 jobs.

Creating an Anchored Local Economy in Newark: Recommendations for Implementing a Comprehensive Local Procurement Strategy

Kim Zeuli, Lena Ferguson and Austin Nijhuis

This new report from the Initiative for a Competitive Inner City (ICIC) identifies an opportunity for Newark anchor institutions to shift over $425 million of procurement toward local purchasing. In addition to targeting local procurement strategies in high expenditure areas, authors Kim Zeuli, Lena Ferguson, and Austin Nijhuis also suggest that anchors target local procurement contract opportunities so as to build the capacity of small firms to scale up for future contracts, as demonstrated by the Chicago Anchors for a Strong Economy (CASE) initiative

2013

The Anchor Mission: Leveraging the Power of Anchor Institutions to Build Community Wealth

Farzana Serang, J. Phillip Thompson and Ted Howard

This report from The Democracy Collaborative and the Department of Urban Studies and Planning at MIT focuses on the path-breaking Vision 2010 Program implemented in Cleveland and Northeast Ohio by University Hospitals System. Over a five year period, the initiative targeted more than $1 billion of procurement locally to create jobs, empower minority- and female-owned businesses, and create a “new normal” for responsible, community-focused business practices in the region.

The Anchor Mission: Leveraging the Power of Anchor Institutions to Build Community Wealth

Farzana Serang, J. Phillip Thompson and Ted Howard

This report from The Democracy Collaborative and the Department of Urban Studies and Planning at MIT focuses on the path-breaking Vision 2010 Program implemented in Cleveland and Northeast Ohio by University Hospitals System. Over a five year period, the initiative targeted more than $1 billion of procurement locally to create jobs, empower minority- and female-owned businesses, and create a “new normal” for responsible, community-focused business practices in the region.

2012

Greening the Bottom Line

Emily Flynn, Mark Orlowski and Dano Weisbord

Greening the Bottom Line, a report from the Sustainable Endowments Institute, highlights the role of green revolving funds — an energy-efficient financing mechanism that colleges, universities, and nonprofits have increasingly adopted as a means to fund sustainability initiatives in their buildings and operations. Authors Emily Flynn and Mark Orlowski show that the cost savings of these funds boost the bottom line for institutions while also replenishing the fund for investment in the next round of green retrofits, thus establishing a sustain­able funding cycle.

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

The University and the Creative Economy

Richard Florida, Gary Gates, Brian Knudsen and Kevin Stolarick

2005

Creative New York

Robin Keegan, Neil Kleiman, Beth Siegel, Michael Kane and edited by Andrea Coller McAuliff, David Jason Fischer, and Jonathan Bowles

2004

Targeting Growth Opportunities around Baltimore's Bioscience Research Anchors

Battelle Memorial Institute, Technology Partnership Practice
report prepared for: East Baltimore Development Incorporated in collaboration with Maryland Department of Business and Economic Development, Maryland Technology Development Corporation, Greater Baltimore Committee and Baltimore Development Corporation

2003

2002

2000

1999

Arts and Philanthropy in the 21st Century

Dennis Collins, Caroline Avery, Archibald Gillies and Anna Faith Jones
Grantmakers in the Arts: Proceedings from the 1999 Conference

n/a

n/a

Asset-Based Community Development Institute (ABCD), Northwestern University

Established in 1995, the ABCD Institute is built upon three decades of community development research by John Kretzmann and John L. McKnight. The ABCD Institute focuses its efforts in two areas: (1) through extensive and substantial interactions with community builders, and (2) by producing practical resources and tools for community builders to identify, nurture, and mobilize neighborhood assets and anchor institutions.

How 3 CEOs Are Embracing Their Institutions' Roles as Anchors in the Community

Matt O'Connor

As integral parts of the community, health systems are in a powerful position to further social change.

Hospitals & Philanthropy

Doug Easterling , Allen Smart and Laura McDuffee

How Hospitals Can Help Heal Communities

Ted Howard and Tyler Norris
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco

In this article for the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco's blog, Democracy Collaborative President Ted Howard and Kaiser Permanente Vice President for Total Health Partnerships Tyler Norris discuss the immense potential of hospitals to build wealth in their surrounding communities. In the article, Howard and Norris delve into issues addressed in their co-authored report, Can Hospitals Heal America's Communities?. The Build Health Places Network also featured the article on their blog.

Intermediaries in Integrated Approaches to Health and Economic Mobility

Prabhjot Singh and Stuart M. Butler

For individuals to achieve upward economic mobility they must live in a supportive neighborhood with, among other things, high quality primary care and good public schools. But even when the key ingredients of success are present, households often find it hard to navigate services. A variety of intermediaries help address that problem.

Some are “embedded” in such organizations as hospitals or schools and help clients to obtain a range of supplementary services. Examples include Health Leads, City Health Works, and Grand Aids, along with local community health workers and school nurse programs.

Others are the result of hospital-led population health systems. Examples include the Parkland Health system in Texas, the Montefiore and the Mount Sinai health systems in New York, and Washington Adventist Hospital in Maryland.

Others still are organizations linking together institutions focused on the same goal by providing data sharing services, financing, or organizational support. Examples include community development financial institutions, but also integrated service systems, such as the Harlem Children’s Zone that organizes wraparound services for the families of its school students.

While intermediaries help households and can add value, they also face challenges in their operations. Often they are underfunded because budgets do not reflect their broad community value. Many regulatory and technical barriers impede information sharing with intermediaries, which is necessary to credibly show improved outcomes. There can also be a clash of culture between intermediaries and other organizations.

Policymakers in both the public and private sectors need to address these challenges so that intermediary institutions can demonstrate their value and fulfill their crucial role. 

Can the Real Sharing Economy Please Stand Up?

Nina Feldman
Next City

In the wake of the BP oil spill, co-op businesses are on the rise in New Orleans

Hospitals adopt anchor institution economic development strategies

Betsy Taylor
Catholic Health World

David Zuckerman, the Democracy Collaborative's Healthcare Engagement Manager, speaks with Catholic Health World about how and why hospitals and health systems are devising anchor institution strategies to strengthen local economies. 

The Rise of the Anchor Institution: Setting Standards for Success

Aaron Bartley
Huffington Post

 Aaron Bartley, co-founder of People United for Sustainable Housing (PUSH Buffalo), describes the growing use of anchor-based economic development strategies and recommends the Collaborative’sAnchor Dashboard as a tool for universities to measure their community impact.

Effective Governance of a University as an Anchor Institution

Ira Harkavy, Matthew Hartley, Rita A. Hodges, Anthony Sorrentino and Joann Weeks
Raabe Academic Publishers

This case study, authored by Ira Harkavy and his colleagues at Penn, describes how the role of the University of Pennsylvania as an anchor institution has evolved from 1981 to present. The paper describes community engagement efforts like the Netter Center for Community Partnerships, which works to leverage research, teaching, and learning to support West Philadelphia; and the University City District, an economic partnership between small businesses, anchor institutions. While Penn’s cultural reshaping remains, in the words of its authors, a “work in progress,” the authors are optimistic that “Penn will further evolve as an anchor institution and increasingly realize [Ben] Franklin’s democratic civic vision.”

Committing to Their Roots: Interview with Ted Howard

Mary Helen Petrus
Forefront: New Ideas on Economic Policy from the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

Forefront interviews Ted Howard, who describes how large, so-called anchor institutions can make a difference in the high-unemployment, high-poverty neighborhoods in which they operate. But he also says they should be ready for unintended consequences as they do.

Universities as Anchor Institutions

Eugenie Birch, David C. Perry and Henry Louis Taylor, Jr.
Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement

Ripple: The Potential Power of Purposeful Purchasing

David LePage

Like a stone thrown into a pond, every purchase creates a ripple. Unintentionally or intentionally, every decision to purchase causes not one, but multiple transactions affecting the community’s capital, whether social, environmental, cultural, structural, human, or economic. 

New Approaches Are Needed to Curb Poverty

Gar Alperovitz, Steve Dubb and Ted Howard
The Chronicle of Philanthropy, volume 20, number 3

The University and Urban Revival: Out of the Ivory Tower and Into the Streets

Judith Rodin

New book by former University of Pennsylvania President Judith Rodin examines Penn's community partnership efforts.

Food and Food Purchasing: A Role for Health Care

Health Care Without Harm
Going Green: A Resource Kit for Pollution Prevention in Health Care, Section 8-1

Campuses Purchasing Green

Second Nature and Education For Sustainability-Western Network

Community Foundations: What Do They Offer Community Development?

Jeffrey S. Lowe

This article provides case studies of the role of three community foundations in facilitating the establishment of community development collaboratives to galvanize support for local community development corporations (CDCs): the Cleveland Foundation, the Dade Community Foundation, and the Greater New Orleans Foundation. Sentiments about community foundation support or influence upon CDC activity captured from person-to-person interviews with CDC staff and community foundation personnel and board members are included, in addition to secondary data documenting the character and activity of community foundation assistance. The article offers lessons drawn from the three cases. Although it makes no broad generalizations, the article concludes with some recommendations for community foundations interested in community development collaboratives as a means of supporting local CDCs and identifies some areas for future research. 

The Meds and Eds in Urban Economic Development

Carolyn N. Adams
Journal of Urban Affairs, volume 25, number 5, pages 571–588

Community-University Partnerships for Affordable Housing

W. Wiewel, F. Gaffikin and M. Morrissey
Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, volume 5, issue 1, pages 27-46

Key Community Benefit Terms

Across the country, nonprofit hospitals are beginning to comply with a new federal requirement that they partner with community and public health representatives to identify and develop strategies for addressing community health needs. This requirement, found in the Affordable Care Act, builds on the best practices of leading hospitals and hospital systems that already strategically invest resources and build partnerships with community groups and public health leaders to improve community health. This one-page provides definitions for important terms to know.

Economic Analysis Of Detroit’s Food System

Econsult Solutions, Inc. and Urbane Development, LLC

The food economy in Detroit is already the city’s third largest economic sector, and is poised to be the next largest growth sector for the city, note Econsult Solutions, Inc. and Urbane Development in a report written on behalf of The Detroit Food and Fitness Collaborative. In their report, the authors outline several strategies to foster equitable growth, including connecting local, small-scale food producers and manufactures to anchor institution demand. Only by engaging Detroiters and supporting the local, small, and medium sized actors in the system, the report argues, will food sector growth be effective in creating jobs and building community wealth for Detroit residents. 

The New Barnraising

Gareth Potts
German Marshall Fund of the United States

This new toolkit from the German Marshall Fund offers policies and practices to empower communities to preserve civic assets such as public parks, libraries, and recreation centers in the face of public and private resource constraints. Based on research conducted in Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, and Baltimore, the guide offers a range of strategies to raise money, awareness, and community involvement for the preservation of community assets.

Journal of Higher Education Outreach & Engagement

Anchor Institution Task Force
Journal of Higher Education Outreach & Engagement

Moderated by the Anchor Institution Task Force, this special issue of the Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement details the successes and challenges of anchor institution–community partnerships and discusses what it takes to create and sustain eective collaborative strategies. Topics covered include: what it means to be an anchor institution, how to build coalitions and collective expertise, engaging the arts, how colleges can support entrepreneurial ecosystems, the role of higher education in Promise Neighborhoods, and the role of service-learning in promoting anchor institution work. Detailed case studies are presented from Syracuse, Widener, Miami Dade College, Tulsa Community College, Lehigh, University of Michigan, and University of Tennessee.

The Road Half Traveled: University Engagement at a Crossroads

Rita Axelroth Hodges and Steve Dubb

Authored by Rita Axelroth Hodges and Steve Dubb as part of Michigan State University Press' series on Transformations in Higher Education, the book features ten in-depth cases and examines how universities, by pursuing an anchor institution mission to improve surrounding communities in cooperation with community partners, can positively impact the welfare of low-income residents.

The Role of Anchor Institutions in Restoring Neighborhoods

Janet Viveiros and Lisa Sturtevant
Anchor institutions, such as hospitals and universities, can be important catalysts for urban economic and community development. They can take on a variety of roles—from community infrastructure builder to purchaser of local goods and services to developer of real estate. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), nonprofit hospitals and other health care institutions have new obligations and opportunities to embrace their role as community anchors by pursuing activities that focus on addressing the comprehensive health needs in their communities. In the years to come, health care institutions can become more actively involved in supporting the development of safe, decent and affordable housing, a key social determinant of health. This brief describes those opportunities and provides specific guidance for how affordable housing and community development organizations can successfully partner with anchor institutions to improve neighborhoods and expand housing opportunities.

The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001-2014

Raj Chetty , Michael Stepner, Sarah Abraham, Shelby Lin, Benjamin Scuderi , Nicholas Turner, Augustin Bergeron and David Cutler

Diversity in Health Care: Examples from the Field

Health Research & Educational Trust

Diversity is becoming a key word in health care. Hospitals and health care systems are focusing on providing care that addresses the diversity of their patient populations. To better care for diverse patient populations, hospitals are working to increase the diversity of their leadership team, board and staff. And many hospital teams are building a culture of diversity and inclusion, to better engage all employees and provide high-quality, equitable care for all patients. 

A Case to End US Hunger Using Collaboration to Improve Population Health

Randy Oostra

Over the last 50 years, every U.S. president has worked, in some fashion, to address healthcare spending while improving the fundamental healthcare conditions for those in need. As healthcare leaders we often think in terms of three- to ve-year plans. But if we think about the next 50 years, it brings into question ‘what’ and ‘how’ the investments we’re making now in our communities — whether new facilities, programs or initiatives — will impact the public by 2064. 

Hospital Community Benefits after the ACA

Cynthia H. Woodcock and Gayle D. Nelson

Leveraging hospital community benefit policy to improve community health

Building a More Inclusive National Park System for All Americans

Nidhi Thakar, Claire Moser and Laura E. Durso

Work remains to build a system of national parks and monuments that tells the stories of all Americans by reflecting the full scope of the nation’s history and meeting the demands of a diverse population. 

Can Income-Related Policies Improve Population Health?

Laudan Aron, Lisa Dubay , Emily Zimmerman, Sarah M. Simon , Derek Chapman and Steven H. Woolf

How Are Income and Wealth Linked to Health and Longevity?

Steven H. Woolf , Laudan Aron , Lisa Dubay , Sarah M. Simon , Emily Zimmerman and Kim X. Luk

Hospital Community Benefits After the ACA: The State Law Landscape

Martha H. Somerville, Gayle D. Nelson and Carl H. Mueller

The Hilltop Institute’s Hospital Community Benefit Program has released a new online resource, the Community Benefit State Law Profiles, and a companion brief, Hospital Community Benefits After the ACA: The State Law Landscape. The Profiles present a comprehensive analysis of each state’s community benefit landscape as defined by its laws, regulations, tax exemptions, and, in some cases, policies and activities of state executive agencies. As state policymakers and community stakeholders assess their state’s community benefit requirements (or the absence of such requirements) in the wake of national health reform, these tools provide a contextual basis for consideration of these policies and those of other states in comparison to federal community benefit benchmarks. 

Anchor Institutions: An Interpretive Review Essay

Henry Louis Taylor, Jr. and Gavin Luter

This paper from the Anchor Institution Task Force (AITF) is a review of existing literature on anchor institutions that seeks to provide insight on the role of anchors in the transformation communities and guide future research. The paper finds that while an understanding of anchor institutions is growing, the field needs to extend the base of knowledge and continue to encourage institutions to have a leading role in the building of democratic communities and local economies.

Democratic Devolution: How America’s Colleges and Universities Can Strengthen Their Communities

Ira Harkavy and Rita Axelroth Hodges

In a policy memo from the Progressive Policy Institute, Ira Harkavy and Rita Axelroth Hodges of the Netter Center for Community Partnerships at the University of Pennsylvania call on government to increase its support fo partnerships between communities and institutions of higher education. Given the immense resources available to colleges and universities, these anchor institutions have the potential to ground civic partnerships working to revitalize local communities. To do so, they must change their organizational structures and make civic engagement a core principle across all levels of the institution.  The federal government, by targeting existing resources, directing financial incentives and mobilizing the bully pulpit, can help catalyze this shift.

The Neighborhood Dynamics of Hospitals as Large Land Owners

Raphael W. Bostic, LaVonna B. Lewis and David C. Sloane
presentation at conference on Large Landowners and Their Impact on Land Values

Field Guide: The Future of Health is Local

Business Alliance for Local Living Economies (BALLE)
Business Alliance for Local Living Economies

This field guide, produced by The Business Alliance for Local Living Economies (BALLE) in partnership with Kaiser Permanente, connects the dots between the social determinants of health and the framework of strategies that both BALLE and MIT's Presencing Institute have identified as the path forward in building thriving local economies:

Cleveland’s Greater University Circle Initiative: An Anchor-Based Strategy for Change

Walter Wright, Kathryn W. Hexter and Nick Downer

Cities are increasingly turning to their “anchor” institutions as drivers of economic development, harnessing the power of these major economic players to benefit the neighborhoods where they are rooted. This is especially true for cities that are struggling with widespread poverty and disinvestment. Urban anchors— typically hospitals and universities—have sometimes isolated themselves from the poor and struggling neighborhoods that surround them. But this is changing. Since the late 1990s, as population, jobs, and investment have migrated outward, these “rooted in place” institutions are becoming a key to the long, hard work of revitalization. In Cleveland, the Greater University Circle Initiative is a unique, multi-stakeholder initiative with a ten-year track record. What is the “secret sauce” that keeps this effort together?

Community Wealth Building in Jackson, Mississippi: Strategic Considerations

The Democracy Collaborative

This report, prepared by The Democracy Collaborative and submitted to Cooperation Jackson, highlights opportunities to build a cooperative economy in Jackson, Mississippi linked to anchor institution procurement.

Economic Impact Guidelines

Zoë Ambargis, Charles Ian Mead, Stanislaw J. Rzeznik, David Swenson and Janet Weisenberger

A Roadmap for Anchor Institution Local Food Purchasing in Baltimore

Karin Endy and Karen Karp

Commissioned by the Baltimore Integration Partnership, a collaboration of anchor institutions, nonprofits, and public organizations focused on inclusion in Baltimore, this report from Karp Resources describes how anchors can create opportunities for local food vendors and strengthen the local economy. To help local vendors gain contracts with anchor institutions, which typically work with large food service providers, the report encourages anchors to create local preference requirements within their requests for proposals (RFPs), to support the certification of local- and minority-owned enterprises, and to institute local food price preferences.

Anchor Richmond: Community Opportunities & Anchor Strategies for the Berkeley Global Campus at Richmond Bay

Eli Moore, Nadia Barhoum and Alexis Alvarez Franco

This new report from the Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society identifies opportunities for community wealth building in Richmond, California. The authors claim that with the development of the Berkeley Global Campus, which is poised to become the largest employer in Richmond and the largest public investment in Richmond since World War II, UC Berkeley and the associated Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have a unique opportunity to reduce racial inequality and promote broad prosperity in Richmond. The Haas report provides several recommendations that these anchor institutions can adopt, including the creation of a working group to develop and monitor strategies for community wealth building and the creation of a fund to launch minority-owned businesses.

Improving Community Health through Hospital – Public Health Collaboration: Insights and Lessons Learned from Successful Partnerships

Lawrence Prybil et al.

A new IRS requirement that tax-exempt hospitals conduct community health needs assessments encourages hospitals to work collaboratively with a wide range of stakeholders. The authors of a recent report, published by the Commonwealth Center for Governance Studies, Inc., argue that this federal mandate presents an opportunity to improve community health and reduce health care expenditures. The report offers several case studies of effective and sustainable partnerships in California, Minnesota, Maryland, Florida, and elsewhere throughout the country. 

Underwriting Good Jobs

Robert Hiltonsmith and Lew Daly
Demos

The third report in a Dēmos research series examining how the federal contracting system has contributed to income inequality illustrates the potential for federal purchasing to instead promote upward mobility. The authors show that by setting higher workforce standards, which require federal contractors to provide living wages, paid sick leave, and the right to collective bargaining, the United States can grow its middle class, increase community wealth, and generate employment. Indeed, the authors estimate that such measures could foster the creation of an additional 260,000 jobs.

Creating an Anchored Local Economy in Newark: Recommendations for Implementing a Comprehensive Local Procurement Strategy

Kim Zeuli, Lena Ferguson and Austin Nijhuis

This new report from the Initiative for a Competitive Inner City (ICIC) identifies an opportunity for Newark anchor institutions to shift over $425 million of procurement toward local purchasing. In addition to targeting local procurement strategies in high expenditure areas, authors Kim Zeuli, Lena Ferguson, and Austin Nijhuis also suggest that anchors target local procurement contract opportunities so as to build the capacity of small firms to scale up for future contracts, as demonstrated by the Chicago Anchors for a Strong Economy (CASE) initiative

The Anchor Mission: Leveraging the Power of Anchor Institutions to Build Community Wealth

Farzana Serang, J. Phillip Thompson and Ted Howard

This report from The Democracy Collaborative and the Department of Urban Studies and Planning at MIT focuses on the path-breaking Vision 2010 Program implemented in Cleveland and Northeast Ohio by University Hospitals System. Over a five year period, the initiative targeted more than $1 billion of procurement locally to create jobs, empower minority- and female-owned businesses, and create a “new normal” for responsible, community-focused business practices in the region.

The Anchor Mission: Leveraging the Power of Anchor Institutions to Build Community Wealth

Farzana Serang, J. Phillip Thompson and Ted Howard

This report from The Democracy Collaborative and the Department of Urban Studies and Planning at MIT focuses on the path-breaking Vision 2010 Program implemented in Cleveland and Northeast Ohio by University Hospitals System. Over a five year period, the initiative targeted more than $1 billion of procurement locally to create jobs, empower minority- and female-owned businesses, and create a “new normal” for responsible, community-focused business practices in the region.

Greening the Bottom Line

Emily Flynn, Mark Orlowski and Dano Weisbord

Greening the Bottom Line, a report from the Sustainable Endowments Institute, highlights the role of green revolving funds — an energy-efficient financing mechanism that colleges, universities, and nonprofits have increasingly adopted as a means to fund sustainability initiatives in their buildings and operations. Authors Emily Flynn and Mark Orlowski show that the cost savings of these funds boost the bottom line for institutions while also replenishing the fund for investment in the next round of green retrofits, thus establishing a sustain­able funding cycle.

The University and the Creative Economy

Richard Florida, Gary Gates, Brian Knudsen and Kevin Stolarick

Creative New York

Robin Keegan, Neil Kleiman, Beth Siegel, Michael Kane and edited by Andrea Coller McAuliff, David Jason Fischer, and Jonathan Bowles

Targeting Growth Opportunities around Baltimore's Bioscience Research Anchors

Battelle Memorial Institute, Technology Partnership Practice
report prepared for: East Baltimore Development Incorporated in collaboration with Maryland Department of Business and Economic Development, Maryland Technology Development Corporation, Greater Baltimore Committee and Baltimore Development Corporation

Arts and Philanthropy in the 21st Century

Dennis Collins, Caroline Avery, Archibald Gillies and Anna Faith Jones
Grantmakers in the Arts: Proceedings from the 1999 Conference

Asset-Based Community Development Institute (ABCD), Northwestern University

Established in 1995, the ABCD Institute is built upon three decades of community development research by John Kretzmann and John L. McKnight. The ABCD Institute focuses its efforts in two areas: (1) through extensive and substantial interactions with community builders, and (2) by producing practical resources and tools for community builders to identify, nurture, and mobilize neighborhood assets and anchor institutions.